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Bibliography

Page history last edited by Meghan Houston 11 years, 8 months ago

Bibliography

 

 

Works Cited

“Anthrobacter.” Mikrobe Wiki.  5 Dec. 2008 <http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/.php/>.

Caudales, Forni, and John M Wells. “Cellular Fatty Acid Composition of Rod and Coccus Forms of Arthrobacter Globiformis, A.Crystallopoietes and A.Nicotianae Isolated from the Water Fern Azolla.” Journal of Applied Microbiology 84.5 (2002): 784 - 790. 5 Dec. 2008 <http://www3.interscience.wiley.com///?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0>.

Euzéby, J P. “Genus Arthrobacter.” List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.  December 06, 2008. 13 Dec. 2008 <http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/.html>.

Van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie. “Glutamic Acid Production by Anthrobacter Globimorphis.” Biomedical and Life Sciences 29.1 (1963): 35. 7 Dec. 2008 <http://www.springerlink.com//w1641l1120534x41/>.

 

 

Gunner, H B. “Nitrification by Arthrobacter globiformis.” Nature Publishing Group. 16 Mar. 1963.  11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v197/n4872/abs/1971127a0.html >.

Notes

 

 

Arthrobacter

 

Source:

“Anthrobacter.” Mikrobe Wiki.  5 Dec. 2008 <http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Arthrobacter>.

 

URL:

http://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php/Arthrobacter

 

Quote:

Cell Structure and MetabolismArthrobacteria are coryneform bacteria. They are characterized by pleomorphism and gram variability. They have a complex life cycle marked by two distinct stages. When the cultures are young, cells are slender, gram-negative rods. Jointed rods can be observed after about 1-2 days. By about 30 hours the cells have become very short, gram-positive rods and coccoids. Arthrobacteria are nonsporulating and are members of the actinomycete branch of the gram-positive bacteria. Many arthrobacteria exhibit a weak motility that is often overlooked.Arthrobacteria are nutritionally versatile, using a variety of substrates in their oxidative metabolism including nicotine, nucleic acids, and various herbicides and pesticides. Most species ofArthrobacter are obligate aerobes, but all exhibit a pure respiratory, never fermentative metabolism.Research has shown that at least two species of Arthrobacter, A. globiformis and A. nicotianae, exhibit anaerobic metabolism. In the upper layers of soil inhabited by arthrobacteria changes in oxygen concentrations are frequent, and these species of Arthrobacter have adapted oxygen independent growth strategies in order to survive periods of oxygen limitation. These species use nitrate as an electron acceptor at the end of their respiratory chain, reducing it to ammonia via nitrite.EcologyArthrobacteria form small colonies on blood agar, ranging in color from yellow to white and measuring 2 mm in diameter on average. They are widely distributed in soil. Due to their ubiquitous presence in soil and their ability to metabolize a variety of substances, arthrobacteria have been discovered to degrade a variety of very nasty chemicals. Hexavalent chromium (a toxic substance made famous through its association with the movie Erin Brockovich) is widespread throughout the environment because of its use in dyes, pigments, refractory material, leather tanning, and electroplating. There are two forms of chromium used in these processes: trivalent and hexavalent. Hexavalent chromium is 100 times more toxic than trivalent chromium because of its oxidation state, and is also much more soluble in water, allowing it to seep into groundwater very easily. Very few organisms can grow in the presence of hexavalent chromium, but it has been recently discovered, that Arthrobacter cannot only grow in the presence of hexavalent chromium, it can also reduce it to trivalent chromium, its less toxic form.Arthrobacter has also been found to degrade agricultural pesticides in conjunction with several strains of Streptomyces in a synergistic relationship. Together, they are able to completely degrade the organophosphate insecticide diazinon. They can use this as the only source of carbon and energy. Alone, neither genus can grow on this compound, but working together they are able.A species of Arthrobacter called Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 has been experimented with and it was shown that is can survive in unusually hight concertrations of the toxic pollutant 4-chlotophenol. It was tagged with either gfp (green fluorescent protien gene) or the luc gene (firefly luciferase) and then inoculated into 4-chlorophenol contaminated soil where they were able to completely remove 175 µg/g 4-chlorophenol within 10 days. This trait may later be able to help remove this contaminant from the soil.

 

My Ideas:

gram variabilityhelps get rid of harmful chemicalsfixes nitrogen2 different stages of life: slender and gram negative, short and gram positive (rods/coccoids)

 

 

Glutamic Acid

 

Source:

Van Leeuwenhoek, Antonie. “Glutamic Acid Production by Anthrobacter Globimorphis.” Biomedical and Life Sciences 29.1 (1963): 35. 7 Dec. 2008 <http://www.springerlink.com/content/w1641l1120534x41/>.

 

URL:

http://www.springerlink.com/content/w1641l1120534x41/

 

Quote:

Two hundred and fiftyArthrobacter strains were tested in a basal salts-glucose medium for their ability to produce glutamic acid; 50 strains produced small amounts of glutamic acid and alanine, as well as traces of other amino acids. Five biotin-dependent strains produced extraordinarily large amounts of glutamic acid. One of these, which was identified asA. globiformis, was selected for further study. Glutamic acid was only produced by this organism at biotin levels suboptimal for growth; maximal production (0.45 moles of glutamic acid per mole of glucose consumed) occurred at a biotin level of 10–5µg/ml. Other factors which markedly influenced glutamic acid production were temperature, (NH4)2SO4 concentration, and pH of the growth medium.The taxonomy of glutamic acid-producing bacteria and the correlation between biotin deficiency and glutamic acid production are discussed.

 

My Ideas:

It produces glutamic acid.

 

 

Classification

 

Source:

Euzéby, J P. “Genus Arthrobacter.” List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature.  December 06, 2008. 13 Dec. 2008 <http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/index.html>.

 

URL:

http://www.bacterio.cict.fr/a/arthrobacter.html

 

Quote:

Arthrobacter globiformis (Conn 1928) Conn and Dimmick 1947, species. (Type species of the genus). Type strain (see also StrainInfo.net): strain AS 1.1894 = ATCC 8010 = BCRC (formerly CCRC) 10598 = CCUG 581 = CCUG 12157 = CCUG 28997 = CIP 81.84 = DSM 20124 = HAMBI 88 = HAMBI 1863 = IAM 12438 = ICPB 3434 = IFO (now NBRC) 12137 = JCM 1332 = LMG 3813 = NCIMB 8907 = NRIC 0151 = NRRL B-2979 = VKM Ac-1112. Synonyms: "Bacterium globiforme" Conn 1928, "Achromobacter globiformis" (Conn 1928) Bergey et al. 1930, "Mycobacterium globiforme" (Conn 1928) Krasil'nikov 1941, "Corynebacteriumglobiforme" (Conn 1928) Wood 1950. References: SKERMAN (V.B.D.), McGOWAN (V.) and SNEATH (P.H.A.) (editors): Approved Lists of Bacterial Names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1980, 30, 225-420 (Approved Lists of Bacterial Names in IJSEM Online - Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Amended edition). [1 CONN (H.J.): A type of bacteria abundant in productive soils, but apparently lacking in certain soils of low productivity. New York State Agricultural Experimental Station Technical Bulletin, 1928, 138, 3-26. 2 CONN (H.J.) and DIMMICK (I.): Soil bacteria similar in morphology toMycobacterium and Corynebacterium. Journal of Bacteriology, 1947, 54, 291-303.]

 

 

Arthrobacter globiformis

 

Source:

Page(s) 1127-1128 of... Gunner, H B. “Nitrification by Arthrobacter globiformis.” Nature Publishing Group. 16 Mar. 1963.  11 Dec. 2008 <http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v197/n4872/abs/1971127a0.html >.

 

URL:

http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v197/n4872/abs/1971127a0.html

 

Quote:

The observation reported here that a strain of Arthrobacter globiformis, a ubiquitous soil inhabitant, oxidizes ammonia to hydroxylamine, nitrite, nitrate, and possibly a gaseous intermediate may, therefore, be of some ecological interest.

 

My Ideas:

This bacteria can be a good source of nitrogen for the plants surounding it.

 

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